And, if you're wondering, Wurzelbacher actually lives in Rep. Bob Latta's district - Ohio District 5 - but he can run against Congresswoman Kaptur.
According to the U.S. House of Representatives website, "To be elected, a representative must be at least 25 years old, a United States citizen for at least seven years and an inhabitant of the state he or she represents."
Wurzelbacher rose out of obscurity in 2008 after questioning then-candidate Barack Obama about economic policies. That led Obama's opponent, Republican Sen. John McCain, to repeatedly cite "Joe the Plumber" in a debate.
The filing means a campaign committee can raise and spend funds on Wurzelbacher's behalf. Republicans in northern Ohio said this summer they were recruiting Wurzelbacher to run.
Wurzelbacher later campaigned with McCain and his running mate, Sarah Palin. He also wrote a book, spoke at conservative gatherings and has worked with a veterans' organization in Alaska that provides outdoor programs for wounded soldiers.
He has been an icon for many anti-establishment conservatives. He drew cheers at a tea party rally last year in Cincinnati when he told the crowd not to let "a bunch of liberal pansies" take away their rights.
His district, which was redrawn this year and stretches from Toledo to Cleveland, is heavily tilted toward Democrats. Republicans said this summer that they were recruiting Wurzelbacher to make a run, thinking he could raise enough money to mount a serious challenge.
Cuyahoga County Republican Chairman Rob Frost already has announced he's seeking the GOP nomination. Kaptur and U.S. Rep. Dennis Kucinich, whose district in Cleveland was lumped into Katur's territory, will face each other in a Democratic primary.
John Seewer of the Associated Press contributed to this report
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The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor; the legislative branch, which comprises the Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, which is led by the Supreme Court.